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  1. page Politics edited ... The Election of 1932 The election of 1932 was a major election for America because it gave th…
    ...
    The Election of 1932
    The election of 1932 was a major election for America because it gave the country to change its path and turn itself around. Running for the presidency were Republican President Herbert Hoover and Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt's victory was helped largely by the Bonus Army. Made up of roughly 20,000 army veterans and their families, The Bonus Army marched on Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932, asking for a bonus for being in the Army. The Bonus Army staged a 'protest' in front of the White House. The White House pressured D.C. officials to order the Bonus Army's camps evacuated. This led to a skirmish, which led to a riot in which two police officers and two veterans were killed. President Hoover asked the Army to "put an end to rioting and defiance of authority." The Third Cavalry came with large force and effectively eliminated the "rioting and defiance of authority." Many Americans hated this and Hoover "encountered resentment everywhere he campaigned." When Roosevelt learned of this, he remarked: "Well, this will elect me." And he was right. Hoover had no chance of winning and only got 15,758,901 votes, while Roosevelt won 22,809,638 votes and 472 electoral votes over Hoover's 59. The Democrats also won power in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. (Mintz)
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  2. page Citations edited Citations "Agricultural Adjustment Act." United States History. United States History, …
    Citations
    "Agricultural Adjustment Act." United States History. United States History, n.d. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1639.html>.
    Amadeo, Kimberly. "The Dust Bowl." About-US Economy. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Sep 2011. <http://useconomy.about.com/od/criticalssues/p/The_Dust_Bowl.htm>.
    Carlisle, Rodney P. Handbook To Life In America, The Great Depression And World War II, 1929 To 1949. 2009. 2-3. <http://books.google.com/books/feeds/volumes?q=978-1-4381-2698-2>.
    "Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)." United States History. © 1995-2005 Online Highways, LLC. , n.d. Web. 19 Sep 2011. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1586.html>.
    Cross, Vanessa. "From Laissez Faire to Economic Stimulus." Suite101. Vanessa Cross, March 6, 2010. Web. Sep 17. <http://vanessa-cross.suite101.com/from-laissez-faire-to-economic-stimulus-a210010>.
    "The Hoover Administration." United States History. United States History, 18 Sep 2011. Web. 20 Sep 2011. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1445.html>.
    "The Hoover Administration." Southern Illinois University. Southern Illinois University, 18 Sep 2011. Web. 20 Sep 2011.
    <http://www.museum.siu.edu/museum_classroom_grant/Museum_Explorers/school_pages/bourbonnais/page2.htm>.
    "Laissez-faire." Wikipedia. Wikipedia Foundation Inc., 18 Sep 2011. Web. Sep 17. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laissez-faire>.
    Mintz, Stephen, and S. McNeil. Digital History. N.p., 2011. Web. 23 Sep 2011. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu>.
    "The New Deal." PBS. PBS.org, n.d. Web. 14 Sep 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/dustbowl-new-deal/>.
    "The New Deal." United States History. United States History, 18 Sep 2011. Web. 15 Sep 2011. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1851.html>.
    "The New Deal." Wikipedia.com. Wikipedia Foundation Inc., 16 Sept 2011. Web. 15 Sep 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_Deal>.
    Swogger, Michael. "Lesson One: The Great Depression and New Deal." Mr. Swogger's History Page. 2010. School World, Web. Tuesday September 20,2011.
    Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. Twentieth Anniversary. New York City: Harper Collins Publishing Inc., 1999. 387-88. Print.

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  3. page Economic Realities edited ... {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock market in 1929. (click image to…
    ...
    {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock market in 1929. (click image to go to source)
    In 1929, the United States witnessed the worst economic failure to that day. This failure surprised the vast majority of American citizens due to the fact that
    ...
    even 10
    dollars between trades. During the first three hours of trading, stock values dropped a total of $11 billion. At noon on that day, several prominent bankers met at J.P. Morgan and Co. to stop the problems in the market. Their plan was to buy stocks well above market value in order to put more money back into the market. Their plan worked and stock values rose again, but the damage was done. Public confidence in the stock market was shaken and people were worried. By the end of the day, 11 men well known in Wall Street had committed suicide. Stock prices remained fairly steady on Friday of that week, dropped a little on Saturday, dropped a larger amount on Monday and bombed on Tuesday. Known as Black Tuesday, this day brought forth the worst economic disaster the United States had witnessed so far. As soon as the bell rung for trading to start, people started selling their stocks for anything they could get. Trading volume rose to a record 16,410,30 shares and the average price of stocks fell 12%. One consumer-allegedly a messenger boy- bought a share for only one dollar. By 1932, the index of stock prices went from 210 to just 30, a decrease by roughly 85% and stocks were valued at about 12% of what they had been worth in September of 1929. (Mintz)
    So Why Did the Stock Market Crash?
    ...
    Halgren also writes about incidents in Boston, Detroit, Chicago, New York, and Seattle, all involving large groups of unemployed people demanding food or jobs. (Zinn 387-88)
    When people think about the Great Depression, most of them think of unemployment at some time. Jumping from an average of 3.2% from 1922-29, to almost 25% in 1933 the unemployment rate reached the highest it has ever been in the United States. The high rate of unemployment was the cause of many other problems during the Depression; suicides, riots, deaths, vagrancy and many others.
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  4. page Politics edited President Hoover {Herbert_Hoover.jpeg} President Herbert H. Hoover (click image to go to source) …
    President Hoover
    {Herbert_Hoover.jpeg} President Herbert H. Hoover (click image to go to source)
    When Herbert Hoover began his presidency, the unemployment rate in the country was 4.4%. When he left, it was at 23.6%. The odd thing about Hoover is that after World War One, his efforts saved millions of Europeans and made him an "international hero", but just more than a decade later, he was viewed by his own countrymen as a monster without a heart who provided "financial relief for banks but not for hungry citizens." Hoover was an advocate of "rugged individualism" and he followed this belief during the Depression. When the Depression first hit America, Hoover launched a huge public works project, one of the largest. However, he continued to believe that the unemployment and poverty problems facing Americans were better solved by "voluntary organization and community service." His reason for doing this was that he feared that federal relief would cause recipients to become dependent on the government. He was unaware of the fact that the massive size of the problems America's economy was facing
    made the idea of "rugged individualism" completely meaningless. Many Republicans at this point agreed that a tariff would help to stimulate the economy by keeping foreign products out of the country. Signed in 1930 by Hoover, the Hawley-Smoot tariff raised rates but caused Britain, Canada, France, Germany and other international trading partners to retaliate. This made it much more difficult for the United States to export goods. Hoover pushed state and local governments to increase public works spending which they did. However, this resulted in financial reserves emptied, causing governments to reduce unemployment benefits and enforce sales taxes to cover their deficits, which further put citizens in the hole. Only towards the end of his term did Hoover begin to realize that the economic situation was worse than he thought, and in 1932, he created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation(RFC) to help the banking and railroad systems. "Loans offered under the program funded public works programs and the first federally-supported housing projects." Hoover was not a bad man, his beliefs were just not what was best for the country during the Great Depression.
    The Election of 1932
    The election of 1932 was a major election for America because it gave the country to change its path and turn itself around. Running for the presidency were Republican President Herbert Hoover and Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt's victory was helped largely by the Bonus Army. Made up of roughly 20,000 army veterans and their families, The Bonus Army marched on Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932, asking for a bonus for being in the Army. The Bonus Army staged a 'protest' in front of the White House. The White House pressured D.C. officials to order the Bonus Army's camps evacuated. This led to a skirmish, which led to a riot in which two police officers and two veterans were killed. President Hoover asked the Army to "put an end to rioting and defiance of authority." The Third Cavalry came with large force and effectively eliminated the "rioting and defiance of authority." Many Americans hated this and Hoover "encountered resentment everywhere he campaigned." When Roosevelt learned of this, he remarked: "Well, this will elect me." And he was right. Hoover had no chance of winning and only got 15,758,901 votes, while Roosevelt won 22,809,638 votes and 472 electoral votes over Hoover's 59. The Democrats also won power in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. (Mintz)

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    8:25 pm
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  7. page Economic Realities edited About the Stock Market Crash In 1929, the United States witnessed the worst economic failure to t…
    About the Stock Market Crash
    In 1929, the United States witnessed the worst economic failure to that day. This failure surprised the vast majority of American citizens due to the fact that
    {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock market in 1929. (click image to go to source)
    forIn 1929, the United States witnessed the worst economic failure to that day. This failure surprised the vast majority of American citizens due to the fact that
    for
    a lot
    ...
    even 10 dollars
    dollars
    between trades.
    So Why Did the Stock Market Crash?
    Many people wonder why the stock market crashed and how the prosperity of the 1920s ended so harshly. Even at the end of the decade before the crash, the country was in abnormally high spirits. Employment rates were high and inflation was almost nonexistent. Income and industrial production had also increased. What some people don’t realize though, is that not everybody was in good order during the twenties. Ever since the end of World War One the farming industry had been down. After the war ended, European farming was jump started to recover from the war, and Argentina and Australia had also entered the foreign market. This affected American agriculture which in turn, affected everybody in America. “Rural consumers stopped buying farm implements, tractors, automobiles, furniture, and appliances.” Millions of farmers defaulted on their debts and this put pressure on the banking systems, causing 5,000 banks out of the 30,000 banks in America to fail, all before the crash of 1929 even happened. A disastrous chain of events began after this. The banking predicament caused many small business people to fail because they could not acquire loans. People built up large amounts of debt and would cut back on other necessary spending in order to pay them. Less consumer spending therefore led to reduced production and layoffs. This in turn led to less consumer spending and the entire cycle just repeats itself. While this was all going on, the Federal Reserve did the exact opposite of what it should have done. In an attempt to slow stock market speculation, the Reserve slowed the expansion of money in the economy and then allowed it to fall sharply after the crash happened. Because of this, consumers were even further behind on their debts and business could not finance operations. Still, the Federal Reserve only made the situation worse. Instead of dropping interest and expanding money supply like the government does today, they allowed America’s money supply to fall by 27% between 1929 and 1933. Republican tariff policies didn’t do anything to help the economic situation either. These tariffs, like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 brought tariff rates to a record high. These tariffs also affected international trade. Other countries imposed their own tariffs to offset the United State’s. This stopped U.S. exports and by 1933 international trade was down by 30%. These several factors left the economy of the United States in a prime position to fail, which it eventually did. (Mintz)
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    4:37 pm
  8. page Economic Realities edited About the Stock Market Crash ... fact that {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash…
    About the Stock Market Crash
    ...
    fact that
    {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock market in 1929. (click image to go to source)
    for a lot of people, the previous decade had been full of prosperity and happiness. The 1920s are known for massive improvements in technology and wealth. Unfortunately, all good things must come to an end and that was what happened on October 29, 1929. The few days leading up to the crash were themselves a bit shaky. On Thursday, October 24, sell orders shook the stock exchange markets in New York. Stock prices dropped 2, 5, and even 10 dollars between trades. During the first three hours of trading, stock values dropped a total of $11 billion. At noon on that day, several prominent bankers met at J.P. Morgan and Co. to stop the problems in the market. Their plan was to buy stocks well above market value in order to put more money back into the market. Their plan worked and stock values rose again, but the damage was done. Public confidence in the stock market was shaken and people were worried. By the end of the day, 11 men well known in Wall Street had committed suicide. Stock prices remained fairly steady on Friday of that week, dropped a little on Saturday, dropped a larger amount on Monday and bombed on Tuesday. Known as Black Tuesday, this day brought forth the worst economic disaster the United States had witnessed so far. As soon as the bell rung for trading to start, people started selling their stocks for anything they could get. Trading volume rose to a record 16,410,30 shares and the average price of stocks fell 12%. One consumer-allegedly a messenger boy- bought a share for only one dollar. By 1932, the index of stock prices went from 210 to just 30, a decrease by roughly 85% and stocks were valued at about 12% of what they had been worth in September of 1929. (Mintz)
    ...
    Many people wonder why the stock market crashed and how the prosperity of the 1920s ended so harshly. Even at the end of the decade before the crash, the country was in abnormally high spirits. Employment rates were high and inflation was almost nonexistent. Income and industrial production had also increased. What some people don’t realize though, is that not everybody was in good order during the twenties. Ever since the end of World War One the farming industry had been down. After the war ended, European farming was jump started to recover from the war, and Argentina and Australia had also entered the foreign market. This affected American agriculture which in turn, affected everybody in America. “Rural consumers stopped buying farm implements, tractors, automobiles, furniture, and appliances.” Millions of farmers defaulted on their debts and this put pressure on the banking systems, causing 5,000 banks out of the 30,000 banks in America to fail, all before the crash of 1929 even happened. A disastrous chain of events began after this. The banking predicament caused many small business people to fail because they could not acquire loans. People built up large amounts of debt and would cut back on other necessary spending in order to pay them. Less consumer spending therefore led to reduced production and layoffs. This in turn led to less consumer spending and the entire cycle just repeats itself. While this was all going on, the Federal Reserve did the exact opposite of what it should have done. In an attempt to slow stock market speculation, the Reserve slowed the expansion of money in the economy and then allowed it to fall sharply after the crash happened. Because of this, consumers were even further behind on their debts and business could not finance operations. Still, the Federal Reserve only made the situation worse. Instead of dropping interest and expanding money supply like the government does today, they allowed America’s money supply to fall by 27% between 1929 and 1933. Republican tariff policies didn’t do anything to help the economic situation either. These tariffs, like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 brought tariff rates to a record high. These tariffs also affected international trade. Other countries imposed their own tariffs to offset the United State’s. This stopped U.S. exports and by 1933 international trade was down by 30%. These several factors left the economy of the United States in a prime position to fail, which it eventually did. (Mintz)
    Effects of the Crash/Depression
    ...
    all ways;
    {depressionnobody_knows_you.jpg} Two men looking for jobs after the depression hit. (click image to go to source)
    unemployment, bank failures, decrease of income and production, and poverty. Unemployment rose from less then 3 million in 1929 to 4 million a year later, then to 8 million in 1932, and it finally reached 12.5 million 1932, a total rise of over 300%. Anybody lucky enough to have a job was not much better off anyways. Those few experienced severe price cuts and less working hours. Only tenth of all companies did not cut their worker’s pay and by 1932, “75% of all American workers were working part-time schedules averaging a total of just 60% of a normal work week.” In a matter of just four years, average family income in the United States dropped 40%, from $2,300 to $1,500. Homelessness was a problem as well. In the Pennsylvanian coal fields, three or four families would live in one-room huts and survive on wild seeds. Families in Arkansas were found living in caves and in Oakland, California, entire families would live sewer pipes. Vagrancy rates rose as families could not pay their rents and many people moved from town to town looking for jobs. The Southern Pacific Railroad claimed that it threw 683,000 vagrants off its trains in 1931. As mentioned before, many families wouldn’t pay medical or dental expenses in order to save money. People also had to cope by “planting gardens, canning food, buying used bread, and using cotton and cardboard for shoe soles.” People stopped buying milk or meat, even in the wake of decreased food costs, and in New York City, milk
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    4:30 pm
  9. page Economic Realities edited About the Stock Market Crash {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock marke…
    About the Stock Market Crash
    {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock market in 1929. (click image to go to source)InIn 1929, the
    ...
    fact that for
    {article.jpeg} An article writing about the crash of the stock market in 1929. (click image to go to source)
    for
    a lot
    So Why Did the Stock Market Crash?
    Many people wonder why the stock market crashed and how the prosperity of the 1920s ended so harshly. Even at the end of the decade before the crash, the country was in abnormally high spirits. Employment rates were high and inflation was almost nonexistent. Income and industrial production had also increased. What some people don’t realize though, is that not everybody was in good order during the twenties. Ever since the end of World War One the farming industry had been down. After the war ended, European farming was jump started to recover from the war, and Argentina and Australia had also entered the foreign market. This affected American agriculture which in turn, affected everybody in America. “Rural consumers stopped buying farm implements, tractors, automobiles, furniture, and appliances.” Millions of farmers defaulted on their debts and this put pressure on the banking systems, causing 5,000 banks out of the 30,000 banks in America to fail, all before the crash of 1929 even happened. A disastrous chain of events began after this. The banking predicament caused many small business people to fail because they could not acquire loans. People built up large amounts of debt and would cut back on other necessary spending in order to pay them. Less consumer spending therefore led to reduced production and layoffs. This in turn led to less consumer spending and the entire cycle just repeats itself. While this was all going on, the Federal Reserve did the exact opposite of what it should have done. In an attempt to slow stock market speculation, the Reserve slowed the expansion of money in the economy and then allowed it to fall sharply after the crash happened. Because of this, consumers were even further behind on their debts and business could not finance operations. Still, the Federal Reserve only made the situation worse. Instead of dropping interest and expanding money supply like the government does today, they allowed America’s money supply to fall by 27% between 1929 and 1933. Republican tariff policies didn’t do anything to help the economic situation either. These tariffs, like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 brought tariff rates to a record high. These tariffs also affected international trade. Other countries imposed their own tariffs to offset the United State’s. This stopped U.S. exports and by 1933 international trade was down by 30%. These several factors left the economy of the United States in a prime position to fail, which it eventually did. (Mintz)
    ...
    the Crash/Depression {depressionnobody_knows_you.jpg} Two men looking for jobs after the depression hit. (click image to go to source)
    Over 50
    ...
    all ways; unemployment,
    {depressionnobody_knows_you.jpg} Two men looking for jobs after the depression hit. (click image to go to source)
    unemployment,
    bank failures,
    {images1.jpeg} A man trying to sell his car to get some money after the crash. (click image to go to source)
    consumption dropped by a million gallons a day. President Hoover was unaware of the realities facing the country, actually stating that "[n]obody is starving. The hoboes are better fed then they have ever been." What he didn't know was that there were 20 known cases of starvation in New York City in 1931, and 110 in 1934. It forced people to put a hold on many aspects of their lives. People would have to forgo divorces, marriages, or having babies. After the crash, the birthrate fell below the replacement level for the first time in American history. And even though the divorce rate dropped, there was a higher rate of desertion. By 1940, there were 1.5 million married women not living with their husbands and over 200,000 vagrant children roamed the country after their families split up. The effects of the crash were not just physical, but also psychological, especially for men. Without jobs and a steady pay, many men lost power, "self-respect, and became immobile and stopped looking for jobs." Others turned to alcohol to solve their problems or became destructive to themselves or their families. While men fell, women rose. Many women actually gained during the Depression. To help supplement the family when their husbands lost their jobs, these women would enter the work force. Even though they were usually working menial occupations and not bringing in very much money, the fact that they were bringing in any money gave them a higher status in the family and gave them a say in family decisions. (Mintz)
    ...
    "Indiana Harbor, Indiana, August 5, 1931. Fifteen hundred jobless men stormed the plant of the Fruit Growers Express Conmany here, demanding that they be given jobs to keep from starving. The company's answer was to call the city police, who routed the jobless with menacing clubs."
    Halgren also writes about incidents in Boston, Detroit, Chicago, New York, and Seattle, all involving large groups of unemployed people demanding food or jobs. (Zinn 387-88)
    ...
    many others.
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